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The River Basin References

   

Alemaw, B.F. and N. Sebusang. 2008. Hydro-climatic profile and climate change impacts on the hydrology of the Orange-Senqu Basin. Unpublished Research Report No. RR/CCL/03/08. for Continental Consultants (Pty) Ltd, Gaborone, Botswana. 44 pp. + appendices

Alemaw, B.F. and T.R. Chaoka. 2006. The 1950-1998 warm ENSO events and regional implications to river flow variability in Southern Africa. Journal Water SA 32(4) pp. 459-463.

Allaby, A. and M. Allaby. 1999. A Dictionary of Earth Sciences, Oxford University Press, North Carolina USA. 640 pp.

Brown, C.Greene,A.M,Block, P. J,Giannini, A.2008. Review of downscaling Methodologies for Africa Climate Change Applications. Technical report. Columbia University.Academic commons.

AMNH (American Museum of Natural History). Mining & Distribution: South Africa. Available at: http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/diamonds/africa.html, accessed on: March 24, 2009.

Anderson, R.S. 2008. The Little Book of Geomorphology. Accessed at: http://instaar.colorado.edu/~andersrs/The_little_book_010708_web.pdf. Accessed on: March 12, 2010. University of Colorado at Boulder.

Angula, H, Goreseb, J, Haimbodi, N, Iiputa, G, Katshuna, M, Matros, A, Muduva, T, MuviTjikalapo, M, Nakale, T, Nakthingo, H, Nampila, J, Nantanga, K, Nashipili, N, Shigweda, L& Thomas, T. 2001. Influence of farm dams on water balance in an ephemeral river system:The Kuiseb basin/catchment. Summer Desertification Programme 9. Windhoek: Desert Research Foundation of Namibia


Aquastat Botswana. 2009. FAO’s Information System on Water and Agriculture: Botswana. Available at: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/botswana/index.stm, accessed on: April 10, 2009.

Aquastat Lesotho. 2009. FAO’s Information System on Water and Agriculture: Lesotho. Available at: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/lesotho/index.stm, accessed on: April 10, 2009.

Aquastat Namibia. 2009. FAO’s Information System on Water and Agriculture: Namibia. Available at: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/namibia/index.stm, accessed on: April 10, 2009.

Aquastat South Africa. 2009. FAO’s Information System on Water and Agriculture: South Africa. Available at: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/south_africa/index.stm, accessed on: April 10, 2009.

Ashton, P. 2000. Challenges for Water Sharing in a River Basin. 2000 SIWI Seminar. Available at: http://www.siwi.org/documents/Resources/Water_Front_Articles/2000-2001/WF2-01_Challenges_for_Water_Sharing.pdf, accessed on: October 5, 2009.

AFDB, OECD, UNDP, UNECA. African Economic Outlook.Botswana.2011. Available at : http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/fileadmin/uploads/aeo/Country_Notes/2011/Full/Botswana.pdf.accessed on December 15,2011.


Baron, J. and P. Seward. 2001. An investigation into the groundwater use in South Africa (Technical Report GH 3917). Pretoria: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry.

Barry, R. and R. Chorley. 1992. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. Routledge, London and New York.

Beekman, H.E. and Y. Xu. 2003. Review of Groundwater Recharge Estimation in Arid and Semi-Arid Southern Africa. From Beekman, H.E. and Xu, Y. Groundwater Recharge Estimation in Southern Africa, UNESCO IHP Series No. 64. UNESCO. Paris.

Beekman, H.E., L. Saayman and S.P. Hughes. 2009. Vulnerability of Water Resources to Environmental Change in Southern Africa. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). Nairobi, Kenya.

Begon, M., J.L. Harper and C.R. Townsend. 1990. Ecology: Individuals, Populations and Communities. Blackwell Scientific Publications: Oxford.

Benson, C. & Clay, E. 1998. The impact of drought on sub-Saharan African economies: a preliminary World Bank Technical Paper No. 401.

Benson, C., Thomson, A. & Clay, E. 1997. The macroeconomic impact of drought. In Highlevel

Beschta, R.L. 1996. Suspended Sediment and Bedload. In: Methods in Stream Ecology. F.R. Hauer and G.A. Lamberti (eds). Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.

Bethune, S., M. Griffin and D. Joubert. 2004. National Review of Invasive Alien Species in Namibia. Consultancy Report on information collected regarding Invasive alien species in Namibia for the SABSP. Prepared fro the Directorate of Environmental Affairs, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Windhoek.

Bethune, S (Ed.), D. Shaw and K.S. Roberts and the Wetlands Working Group of Namibia. 2007. Wetlands of Namibia. John Meinert Printing. Windhoek.

Biology Online. 2009. Biology Online dictionary. Available at: http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Main_Page. Accessed on: 5 May, 2009.

BOBS (Botswana Bureau of Standards). 2000. Botswana Bureau of Standards (BOS 32: 2000), 2000 Botswana Standards: Drinking Water Specifications. Republic of Botswana.

Bohensky, E., Reyers, B., van Jaarsveld, A. and C. Fabricus. (eds.). 2004. Ecosystem services in the Gariep Basin. Sun Press, Stellenbosch.

Bornman, T.G., Adams, J.B. & Bezuidenhout, C. 2005. Present Status of the Orange River Mouth Wetland and potential for rehabilitation. Research Report No 43. Institute for Environmental and Coastal Management, Department of botany, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa.

Britannica 2009. Encyclopedia Britannica (online edition). Available online at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/707930/Luvisol. Accessed on: 12 March 2009.

British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, LandData B.C., and Geographic Data B.C. 1998. Guidelines for Interpreting Water Quality Data Version 1.0. Prepared for the Land Use Task Force, Resources Inventory Committee. Available at: http://ilmbwww.gov.bc.ca/risc/pubs/aquatic/interp/index.htm, accessed on: October 5, 2009.

Brown, C. 2004. Pre feasibility study into measures to improve the management of the Lower Orange River and to provide for future development along the border between Namibia and South Africa. Specialist report on environmental flow requirements – Riverine. Permanent Water Commission: The Republic of Namibia and the Republic of South Africa. 137 pp.

Bucas, K. 2006. Natural and anthropogenic influences on the water quality of the Orange River, South Africa – MSc. Thesis. University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

CGIAR 2008. CGIAR Consortium for Spatial Information (CSI) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission website. Available at: http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/. Accessed on 12 November 2008.

Coakley G.J .2010.The Mineral Industry of Namibia. 2009 Minerals Yearbook.U.S Geological Survey. Available at : http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2003/wamyb03.pdf. accesed on December 19,2011.

Cobbing, J. E., P.J. Hobbs, R. Meyer, and J. Davies. 2008. A Critical Overview of Transboundary Aquifers Shared by South Africa. Hydrogeology Journal. Springer-Verlaag.

Commonwealth of Australia. 2006. Connected Water. Managing the linkages between surface water and groundwater. Accessed at: http://www.connectedwater.gov.au/index.html. Accessed on: March 26, 2010.

Conley, A.H. 1996. A Synoptic View of Water Resources in Southern Africa. Institute for Security Studies (ISS). Monography No. 6: Sink or Swim.
Available at: http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/Monographs/No6/Conley.html. Accessed on: March 29, 2009.

Conley et al 2000, Sustainable Management of International Waters: The Orange River case, Water Policy. Vol.2 Pg. 131-149.


Cowling, R.M, D.M. Richardson, and S.M. Pierce. 1997. Vegetation of South Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research). 2004. DWAF DANCED groundwater management manual, Stellenbosch: CSIR, Environmentek.

CSIR (ed.) 2010. A CSIR perspective on water in South Africa. Pretoria. Available online at: http://www.csir.co.za/nre/docs/CSIR%20Perspective%20on%20Water _2010.PDF Accessed on 2011-12-12.

Cummins, K. W. and M. J. Klug. 1979. Feeding ecology of stream invertebrates. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 10:147-172.

Davies, B. and J. Day. 1998. Vanishing Waters. University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town, South Africa.

Day, J H (Ed) . 1981 . Estuarine ecology with particular reference to southern Africa . Cape Town : Balkema

DEAT (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism). 2009. State of the Environment: Water Quality. Available at: http://soer.deat.gov.za/themes.aspx?m=50, accessed on: May 20, 2009.

  1. DEAT. 2009a. State of the Environment Report. Republic of South Africa. Available at:http://www.deat.gov.za/soer/soer/national.htm, accessed on: October 5, 2009.
  2. DEAT 2009b. South African Wetland Conservation Programme: Orange River Mouth Wetland Website. Available at: http://www.environment.gov.za/enviroinfo/sote/nsoer/resource/wetland/orange_mouth.htm.Accessed on: 10 March 2009.

Department of Environmental Affairs (In association with Center for Applied Research).2007. Towards mineral accounts for Botswana.Report on Mineral accounts for Botswana. Available at : http://www.mewt.gov.bw/uploads/files/towards_mineral_accounts_4_botswana.pdf. accessed on December 19,2011.

Du Preez, C.C., M.G. Strydom, P.A.L. le Roux, J.P. Pretorius, L.D. van Rensburg, and A.T.P. Bennie. 2000. Effect of Water Quality on Irrigation Farming along the Lower Vaal River: the Influence on Soils and Crops. WRC Report No. 740/1/00. Republic of South Africa, Pretoria.

Dunne, T. and L.B Leopold. 1978. Water in Environmental Planning. W.H. Freeman an Company, New York.

DWA (Department of Water Affairs). 2003. Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands: Lets’eng-la-Letsi. Available at: http://www.wetlands.org/reports/ris/1LS001_RISen06.pdf, accessed on: October 5, 2009.

DWAF (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry). 1996a. South African Water Quality Guidelines (second edition). Volume 1: Domestic Use. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa.

  1. DWAF. 1996b. South African Water Quality Guidelines (second edition), Volume 2: Recreational Use. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa.
  2. DWAF. 1996c. South African Water Quality Guidelines (second edition), Volume 3: Industrial Use. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa.
  3. DWAF. 1996d. South African Water Quality Guidelines (second edition). Volume 4: Agricultural Use: Irrigation. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa.
  4. DWAF. 1996e. South African Water Quality Guidelines (second edition). Volume 5: Agricultural Use: Livestock Watering. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa.
  5. DWAF. 1996f. South African Water Quality Guidelines (second edition). Volume 6: Agricultural Water Use: Aquaculture. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa.
  6. DWAF. 1996g. South African Water Quality Guidelines. Volume 7: Aquatic Ecosystems. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa.
  7. DWAF. 1998. Orange River Development Project. Replanning Study (ORDRS). Hydrology and System Analysis – Orange River Basin. Department of Water Affairs & Forestry. Republic of South Africa.
  8. DWAF. 1999. Resource Directed Measures for Protection of Water Resources. Volume 2: Integrated Manual Version 1.0. Pretoria, South Africa.
  9. DWAF. 1999a. Resource Directed Measures for Protection of Water Resources. Volume 3: River Ecosystems Version 1.0. Pretoria, South Africa.
  10. DWAF. 2002. Lower Orange Water Management Area (LOWMA)- Water Resources Situation Assessment. Report No. 14000/00/0101. A project undertaken by V3 Consulting Engineers (Pty), Department of Water Affairs and forestry, Pretoria, South Africa by A.J. Smook, D.J. Pournara and A.R. Craig. 34 pp. + appendices
  11. DWAF. 2003a. Upper Orange Water Management Area- Overview of Water Resources Availability and Utilisation. National Water Resources Strategy, Report No. P WMA 13/000/00/0203 by BKS (Pty), Department of Water Affairs and forestry, Pretoria, South Africa by M.S. Basson and J.D. Rossow. 164 pp. + appendices
  12. DWAF. 2003b. Lower Orange Water Management Area- Overview of Water Resources Availability and Utilisation. National Water Resources Strategy, Report No. P WMA 14/000/00/0203 by BKS (Pty) as part of National Water Resources Strategy, South Africa. 31 pp. + appendices
  13. DWAF. 2004a. Integrated Strategic Perspective: Upper Orange Water Management Area. DWAF Report Number: P WMA 13/000/00/0304. Pretoria, South Africa.
  14. DWAF. 2004b. Integrated Strategic Perspective: Lower Orange Water Management Area. DWAF Report Number: P WMA 14/000/00/0304. Pretoria, South Africa.
  15. DWAF. 2004c. Groundwater resource assessment – phase II. Pretoria: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry.
  16. DWAF. 2004d. Integrated Strategic Perspective: Orange River System: Overarching. DWAF Report Number: P RSA D000/00/0104. Pretoria, South Africa.Available at: http://www.dwaf.gov.za/, accessed on: December 4, 2008.

DWA-Lesotho (Department of Water Affairs, Government of Lesotho). 1997. Water Resources Management: Policy and Strategies. Annex E-Water Quality. By TAMS. Commissioned by the Government of Lesotho.

Earle, A., D. Malzbender, A. Turton, and E. Manzungu. 2005. A preliminary basin profile of the Orange-Senqu River. African Water Issues Research Unit (AWIRU) Center for International Political Studies (CIPS), University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. 40pp.

Earth Trends. 2009. Earth Trends Environmental Information. World Resource Institute. Available online at: http://earthtrends.wri.org/ Accessed on Accessed on 26 March 2009.

Britannica 2009. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/, accessed on: October 5, 2009.

Environment Canada. 2009. Environment Canada Definition of Wetlands.
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European Union. 2002. SADC Hydrological Cycle Observing System Evaluation Mission Report. Available at: http://www.whycos.org/IMG/pdf/SADC_PhI_Eval_Rep.pdf, accessed on: September 24, 2009.

Falkenmark, M. and C. Widstrand. 1992. Population and Water Resources: A Delicate Balance. Population Bulletin. Population Reference Bureau.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organsation). 1993. FAO CLIMWAT for CROPWAT, CD-ROM. Agroclimatic database. Rainfall and evaporation figures. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). Rome.2009. World Reference Base for Soils.
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Freeze, R.A. and J.A. Cherry. 1979. Groundwater. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Inc.

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Government of North West Province. 2002. The North West Province State of the Environment Report. Available at: http://www.nwpg.gov.za/soer/fullreport/exec_summary.html. Accessed on: October 5, 2009.

Hartkamp, A.D., K. De Beurs, A. Stein, and J.W. White. 1999. Interpolation Techniques for Climate Variables. NRG-GIS Series 99-01. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.

Hatfield Consultants. 2006. Nile River Awareness Kit.
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Hatfield Consultants. 2008. Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP).
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Heath, R. and M. Claasen. 1999. An Overview of the Pesticide and Metal Levels Present in Populations of Larger Indigenous Fish Species of Selected South African Rivers. WRC Report No. 428/1/99. Republic of South Africa, Pretoria.

Henschel, J.R., M.K. Seely, and J. Zeidler. 2000. Long-term ecological research at Gobabeb: gaining and applying knowledge about a highly variable environment. Journal of the Namibia Scientific Society 48, pp. 89-115.

Hewitson, B., M. Tadross and C. Jack. 2005. Climate Change Scenarios: Conceptual Foundations, Large-scale Forcing, Uncertainty and the Climate Context. In: Schulze, R.E. (Ed) Climate Change and Water Resources in Southern Africa: Studies on Scenarios, Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Adaptation. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, RSA, WRC Report 1430/1/05. Chapter 2, pp. 21-38.

Heyns, P.S.V.H, M.J. Patrick and A.R. Turton. 2008. Transboundary Water Resource Management in Southern Africa: Meeting the Challenge of Joint Planning and Management in the Orange River Basin.

Hill, M.P. and C.J. Cilliers. 1999. A Review of the arthropod natural enemies, and factors that influence their efficacy, in the biological control of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae), in South Africa. In: (Eds.) Olckers, T. and M.P. Hill. Biological Control of Weeks in South Africa (1990- 1998). Entomological Society of Southern Africa.

Hodgson, K. and L. Manus. 2006. A drinking water quality framework for South Africa. Water SA 32( 5) pp. 673-678

Holtzhausen, L. 2005. When Water Turns Deadly: Investigating Nitrate in SA Groundwater. Available at: http://www.wrc.org.za/. Accessed on 2 October 2009.

Howard, G.W. and K.L.S. Harley. 1998. How do floating aquatic weeds affect wetland conservation and development? How can these effects be minimised? Wetland Ecol. Manage. 5, pp. 215-225.

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Hughes, S.P. 2005. Geohydrology Data Model Design: South African Boreholes. MSc. Thesis. University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

IDRC (International Development Research Centre). ITCZ mean position information from: Ker, A.D.R., Moorse, M.W., Watts, E.R. & Gill, B.N. Agriculture in East Africa. Edward Arnold. London, UK. 1978. Available at: http://www.idrc.ca/books/focus/793/fig3.gif. Accessed on: December 13, 2008.

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INGC (Instituto Nacional de Gestão de Calamidades), FEWS NET Mind (Famine Early Warning System). 2003. Atlas for Disaster Preparedness and Response in the Limpopo Basin, INGC, UEM-Department of Geography and FEWS NET MIND, 2003. CD-ROM

International Research Institute. 2000. Understanding the ITCZ. International Research Institute for Climate Protection. 2000. Available at: http://iri.columbia.edu/~bgordon/ITCZ.html. Accessed on 2 March 2009.

Ionescu, C., R.J.T. Klein, J. Hinkel, K.S. Kavi Kumar and R.Klein, 2005: Towards a Formal Framework of Vulnerability to Climate Change. NeWater Working Paper 2 and FAVAIA Working Paper 1, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany.

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Kalff, J. 2002. Limnology Prentice Hall, Inc.River Assessment Monitoring Project: Hardness and Water Quality. Available at: http://kywater.org/ww/ramp/rmhard.htm. Accessed on: May 21, 2009.

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Knoesen, D.M. 2009. Integrating Hydrological Hazards and Climate Change as a Tool for Adaptive Water Resources Management in the Orange-Senqu River Catchment. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

Knoesen, D., R. Schulze, C. Pringle, M. Summerton, C. Dickens, and R. Kunz. 2009. Water for the Future: Impacts of climate change on water resources in the Orange-Senqu River basin. Report to NeWater, a project funded under the Sixth Research Framework of the European Union. Institute of Natural resources, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

Lange, G-M, E. Mungatana and R. Hassan. 2007. Water Accounting for the Orange River Basin: An Economic Perspective on Managing a Transboundary Resource. Ecological Economics. 61: pp. 660-670.

Le Maitre, D.C., D.B. Versveld and R.A. Chapman. 2000. The impact of invading alien plants on surface water resources in South Africa: A preliminary assessment. Water SA 26: pp. 397-408.

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LORMS (Lower Orange River Management Study). 2005a. Pre feasibility study into Measures to improve the Management of the Lower Orange River. Specialist report on the determination of the preliminary ecological reserve on rapid level for Orange River estuary. DWA Namibia report No 400/8/1/P-08, DWAF RSA report No: PB D000/00/4503.

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ORASECOM (Orange-Senqu River Commission). 2006. Hydro-environmental assessment of the Orange River Mouth. By IRD/G-eau. A project funded by FFEM (French Global Environmental Facility). Draft Final Report. December 2006. Prepared by J.M. Fritsch and B. Troy, 59 pp.

ORASECOM 2007a. Orange River Integrated Water Resources Management Plan: Review of Existing Infrastructure in the Orange River Catchment. By WRP Consulting Engineers, Jeffares and Green, Sechaba Consulting, WCE Pty Ltd, and Water Surveys Botswana (Pty) Ltd. ORASECOM, Gaborone, Botswana. 133 pp. + appendices.

  1. 2007e. Environmental Considerations Pertaining to the Orange River WRP Consulting Engineers, Jeffares and Green, Sechaba Consulting, WCE Pty Ltd, Water Surveys Botswana (Pty) Ltd. 190 pp.
  2. 2007f. Summary of Water Requirements from the Orange River. WRP Consulting Engineers, Jeffares and Green, Sechaba Consulting, WCE Pty Ltd, Water Surveys Botswana (Pty) Ltd. 70 pp.
  3. 2007g. Water Quality in the Orange River. By WRP Consulting Engineers, Jeffares and Green, Sechaba Consulting, WCE Pty Ltd, Water Surveys Botswana (Pty) Ltd. ORASECOM, Gabarone, Botswana. 23 pp. + appendices

ORASECOM 2008. Preliminary Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis. By Tethys Environmental Consultants and the Southern African Institute for Environmental Assessment. UNDP Global Environmental Facility and ORASECOM, Gabarone, Botswana. 197 pp.+ appendices.

Petermann, T. (Editor) 2008. Towards Climate Change Adaptation - Building Adaptive Capacity in Managing African Transboundary River Basins. InWEnt, Zschortau, Germany.

Pidwirny, M. 2008. Physical Geography website. Accessed at: www.physicalgeography.net . Accessed on: March 5, 2010. University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC, Canada.

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