Botswana Lesotho Namibia South Africa About Tutorial Glossary Document Centre Image Gallery Maps Google Earth
Search:
Home The River Basin People and the River Governance Meeting the Water Challenge
Resource Management  


Feedback

send a general website comment

report a specific problem with this page

Feedback
Water Demand in the Basin: Urban and Rural Consumption:

Lower Orange River Basin

   

South Africa

The coastal areas of the Lower Orange Water Management Area are characterised by low water requirements, mainly from towns such as Springbok, Steinkopf and Port Nolloth. The total demand of 14,8 Mm³/a (2000) is just below the allocation of 15,6 Mm³/a. To put the total urban, industrial and mining demand of this Water Management Area into perspective, it is important to note that this demand represents less than 0,4% of the total Orange River System demand (Vaal System excluded).

Rural water requirements in the Lower Orange WMA account for 2 % of the total.

Table 1: Year 2000 urban water requirements in the Lower Orange River Water Management Area.

Sub-Area

Urban Population

Domestic (direct)

Indirect

Urban losses

Total

 

Urban per capita (domestic)

Urban return flow

Mm³/a

l/c/d

%

Mainstream Orange

109 926

5,7

3,3

3,0

12,0

 

142

4

Tributaries

90 810

3,9

1,8

1,9

7,7

 

119

0

Coastal

50 402

2,5

1,0

1,2

4,7

 

138

0

Total

251 138

12,1

6,1

6,1

24,4

 

133

2

Source: DWAF 2003b

Table 2: Year 2000 rural water requirements in the Lower Orange River Water Management Area.

Sub-Area

Rural Population

Domestic

Stock watering

Total

Rural human per capita

Mm³/a

l/c/d

Mainstream Orange

77 421

1,3

8,0

9,3

46

Tributaries

20 295

0,4

6,3

6,7

50

Coastal

8 944

0,2

1,2

1,4

56

Total

106 660

1,9

15,5

17,4

48

Source: DWAF 2003b

The Lower Orange River.
Source:Vogel 2009
( click to enlarge )

Botswana

Water requirements are minimal within the Orange-Senqu River basin in Botswana, as no mining or major irrigation activities occur there. Rural water demand is mainly for rural domestic use and stock watering, and generally supplied by small-scale groundwater abstraction or private boreholes.

Water demands for settlements in the Molopo Basin are expected to increase by 11% from 2001 to 2020, from about 3 600 to about 4 000 m³/d. The Botswana National Water Master Plan (BNWMP) projects that infrastructural developments at the rural level will continue into the future to accommodate the increasing water demands nationwide.

Namibia

Namwater supplies bulk water to Mariental and Keetmanshoop, the two major urban centers in the Fish River Basin and the only towns that abstract water directly from the Fish River (Hardap and Naute Dam). Other towns located in the Fish River Basin abstract groundwater through boreholes. Domestic (urban) and industrial demand in the Fish River catchment accounts for 3,5 Mm³/a or 7 % of the total demand. Only 0,9 Mm³/a is supplied from surface water sources, with the remainder (2,6 Mm³/a) from groundwater. The urban water consumption in the Fish River Basin (year 2002) is shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Urban water consumption in the Fish River Catchment (Mm3/a).

Area

Urban Demand

Keetmanshoop

1,79

Mariental

0,93

Source: Muir et al. 2004

Rural water demand in the part of the Orange-Senqu Basin which falls inside Namibia is minimal, estimated at 0,32 Mm³/a for 2005, and is mostly satisfied by groundwater.

 

Interactive

Explore the sub-basins of the Orange-Senqu River


Explore the water management systems around the basin - including intra-basin transfers and sectoral water requirements


Investigate the dams and water infrastructure in the Orange-Senqu basin


Tour video scenes along the Orange-Senqu River related to Meeting the Water Challenge


Listen to a panel discussion about the history and challenges in the Orange-Senqu basin


Explore how hydroelectric dams work


 
You are here: Home Page > Resource Management > Water Demand > Urban and Rural Consumption > Lower Orange River Basin